Famous American Scientists

The land of America has produced many inventors and scientists. The period between 19th and 20th century was that of speedy growth for scientific development. However, the foundation for development was laid prior to this period. The great scientists from America worked in various fields of science to make path-breaking discoveries and inventions. Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Alva Edison, George Washington Carver, Barbara McClintock, and many others brought glory to America by making valuable contributions in this field.

Scientists and Inventors from America

Short profiles of famous American scientists are presented in this article. The following content about renowned American scientists for kids should prove to be informative.

Benjamin Franklin
Born on 17th January, 1706, Benjamin Franklin mainly worked in the field of physics. His notable inventions include the bifocal lens, lightning rod, carriage odometer, Franklin Stove, and glass harmonica. One of the specialties of Franklin’s work was that he never patented the inventions. The principle of ‘conservation of charge’ was first discovered by Franklin. Electrical fluid, as it was referred to in those days, was classified in two categories i.e., vitreous and resinous. Franklin had claimed that these weren’t two different types but the same entity under different pressures.

Thomas Edison
He was not only one of the famous American inventors, but also was a successful businessman. Born on 11th February, 1847, Thomas Alva Edison came from Milan, Ohio. The electric bulb is one of his most notable inventions. Other inventions include the motion picture camera and phonograph. Improvements made in the incandescent light by Edison laid the foundation for inventing electric bulb. A system for distribution of electricity was patented by Edison in 1880. He earned large profits by first patenting the inventions, and then setting up mass production systems.

George Washington Carver
He was one of the most famous African-American scientists. He taught the farmers to make a variety of recipes from peanuts. George Washington Carver also made improvements in the preparation of various items including the edible ones. The list of these items is as follows: axle grease, adhesives, instant coffee, fuel briquettes, chili sauce, buttermilk, bleach, sidewalk, plastic, paper, metal polish, etc.

Barbara McClintock
She was a specially distinguished cytogeneticist, and she won the Nobel Prize for ‘Physiology or Medicine’ in the year 1983. The technique developed by McClintock to visualize the corn chromosomes was one of her most notable works. The phenomenon of transposition was discovered by this scientist in the 40s and 50s decade. In this research work, the role of genes in exhibiting the physical characteristics was explained.

Linus Pauling
He was basically a chemist. However, he also worked as an educator and peace activist. He is amongst the most important scientists, and one of the first ones to work in the field of molecular biology and quantum chemistry. Linus Pauling is the only person along with Marie Curie to have won the Nobel Prize in two different fields (Chemistry and Peace). He developed interest in the study of quantum mechanics while being at the Oregon State University.

Percy Julian
Basically a research chemist, Percy Lavon Julian is credited for his pioneering work in the field of medicinal drugs synthesis from plants. He also pioneered the large-scale industrial production of hormones like testosterone, progesterone, etc., from plant sterols. Sitosterol and stigmasterol were the ones that were used for this production. He was able to secure more than 130 patents in his lifetime.

The works of these above-mentioned famous scientists from USA should prove to be inspiring for all of us.

Famous Forensic Scientists

If you have read Julius Caesar, then you must remember the part where after his assassination, one physician claimed that out of all the 23 wounds on his body, only one was fatal. This was the result of a forensic investigation of Caesar’s murder. Surprised that the forensic science goes back so long? Well, the history of forensic science does go back to thousands of years (approximately 44 BC). The term ‘forensic’ has been derived from the Latin word forensis which means ‘of or before the forum’. In simple terms it means the process of applying scientific principles to legal questions. Forensic science has come a long way from the time when the Chinese used fingerprints in order to identify certain documents, to forensic experts using modern technology today to find out more about historical objects aged more than thousands of years old. This field has become more popular due to some of the TV shows like ‘Dexter’, ‘Bones’ and so on. More and more people are studying hard to be an expert in this field, while there are some people who have already made a name for themselves in history. Would you like to know more about them? Then keep reading.

There are so many people who have made their name in forensic science, who have solved some of the most difficult crime cases in history and whose footsteps are being followed by hundreds of aspiring forensic experts. Here’s a list of some of the scientists.

Henry C. Lee
Born in the year 1938, Henry C. Lee, was one of the most famous forensic experts. He had worked on more than 6000 cases. Some of the famous cases where he had assisted were that of the murder of a six year old beauty queen, JonBenet Ramsey, suicide of Vince Foster, murder of Laci Peterson and so on. Lee had also been accused of hiding evidence from the Phil Spector case. Right now, he is the faculty member at the University of New Haven and he is also serving as the chief emeritus of the Connecticut State Police.

Dr. Michael Baden
Dr. Baden had served as a consulting and leading pathologist in a number of cases such as the death of actor John Belushi, investigation of the remains of Czar Nicholas II, the last Russian monarch, investigation of the TWA Flight 800 crash and several more. His recent investigation was the autopsy of the death of actor David Carradine. He is also the host of the HBO show ‘Autopsy’.

Clea Koff
Clea Koff was just 23 years old when she was selected to join a team of 15 forensic experts to go to Rwanda in order to investigate the physical evidence of the war crimes. She is the founder of ‘The Missing Persons Identification Resource Center’ which helps families find out missing people in America. She had also written a book about her Rwanda experience and it is called The Bone Woman: A Forensic Anthropologist’s Search for Truth in the Mass Graves of Rwanda, Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo.

Joseph Bell
Joseph Bell was the one who had inspired Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to write about Sherlock Holmes. He was Queen Victoria’s personal surgeon and also taught at the medical school of University of Edinburgh. He was the one who had inspired the beginning of some of the forensic techniques which are famous in the field of forensic science today.

Edmond Locard
I am sure you must have heard the phrase, “Every contact leaves a trace.” This phrase was stated by Edmond Locard, who was also known as the Sherlock Holmes of France. He started his career as an assistant to Alexandre Lacassagne, a criminologist. He was also the one who started the first police laboratory in Lyons police department.

Sara Bisel
Sara Bisel is known for her work and investigation of Herculaneum, which was a town that had been destroyed by a massive volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Her works have been of a major help for the advancement of forensic anthropology. She is known for uncovering information about the past.

Here are some of the other famous scientists who have contributed a lot to forensics.

– Sir Alec Jeffreys
– William Bass
– William Maples
– Cyril Wecht
– Dr. Khunying Pornthip Rojanasunand.

Thanks to these science sleuths, crime busters had an edge over their quarry. As a result of their efforts, forensic science has become an effective tool in the crime investigator’s arsenal.

10 Famous Scientists and Their Discoveries

All the technologies that make our lives easier, all the medicines and medical equipment that save us, and indeed all of our understanding of the world itself are the result of the tireless efforts of all those scientists who spent thousands of hours inventing and discovering these things. Humanity shall forever be indebted to the invaluable contributions made by all these great minds. Presented below, is a list of some of the world’s greatest and most famous scientists, in no particular order, along with brief descriptions of the things they invented/discovered.

Archimedes (287 – 212 BC)
A very versatile personality, Archimedes was a mathematician, physicist, astronomer, engineer, and a very successful inventor. He was popular for his ingenious thinking, and was responsible for developing many innovative machines. He is best known for formulating the method for finding the exact volume of an irregularly shaped object.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Galileo Galilei was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, engineer, and philosopher. He is known as the father of modern observational astronomy, the father of modern physics, and also the father of modern science. From among his several inventions and discoveries, Galileo is best known for his contributions to astronomy. Using the telescope, he was able to confirm the phases of planet Venus, discover and document the four largest satellites of planet Jupiter, which have been named as Galilean moons in his honor, and also observe and analyze sunspots. He even championed the theory of a heliocentricism, at a time when most of the world supported geocentricism.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1726)
Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician, who is widely recognized as one of the greatest and most influential scientists of all time. He played a key role in the development of calculus, and through his extensive study of light, made the first practical reflecting telescope, a technology which till date is used to study the heavens. But perhaps the most important and famous of his discoveries was that of gravity. Newton was able to, not only describe why an apple fell towards the Earth rather than fly away from it, but also provide the mathematical basis for this theory, and describe the motion of objects. His discoveries went on to lay the foundation of classical mechanics, and are considered to be some of the most significant contributions to the world of physics.

Thomas Alva Edison (1847 – 1931)
Among the numerous inventions of Thomas Alva Edison, the most prominent one is the electric bulb, which is still used today to light up our nights. Apart from that, he also invented a number of useful instruments, including the telegraph devices, phonograph, carbon transmitter, direct current generator, gramophone – which was the improved version of the phonograph, the dictating machine, universal electric motor, besides many others.

Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 – 1955)
Sir Alexander Fleming worked in the army medical corp in the First World War, where he witnessed many soldiers die from sepsis resulting from infected wounds. He began actively searching for antibacterial agents, until he discovered the drug penicillin, which revolutionized modern medicine science, by becoming the world’s first antibiotic.

Michael Faraday (1791 – 1867)
Michael Faraday was an English physicist, who made some of the most significant contributions to the fields of electromagnetism and electro-chemistry. Although his formal education was scarce, through extensive research and experimentation, he was able to discover the principle of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and then put forth the laws of electrolysis. He invented the electromagnetic rotary devices, which laid the foundation for the development of the electric motors, which today are the main workhorses of most industries.

Alexander Graham Bell (1857 – 1922)
It was during his experiments with the telegraph that Alexander Graham Bell thought up the concept of the telephone, which, without a question, is one of the most useful inventions of all time. Bell himself, however, considered the telephone to be intruding, and did not have a telephone at his place of work.

Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)
Albert Einstein was a German theoretical physicist, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest minds of modern times. He was wholly responsible for the development of the modern theory of gravity, and partly responsible for the development of quantum mechanics, both of which are the pillars of modern physics. His special and general theories of relativity have captured the minds of the scientific community for decades, and are thought to be so complex that very few people are able to actually grasp their full extent. Einstein is best known for his equation E=mc2, which gives the relation between energy and mass, and forms the basis of atomic energy generation.

Frederick Banting (1891 – 1941)
He started with his education in politics, but ended up shifting to medicine. He completed his MD in the year 1916, and served as a doctor in World War I, attending to many wounded soldiers. Banting’s real interest was in diabetes and its cure, which he worked on with another scientist named Dr. Charles Best. He discovered the hormone insulin, and became the first person to successfully use it on humans.

Stephen William Hawking (1942 – present)
Stephen William Hawking is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author, as well as the Director of Research at the Center for Theoretical Cosmology in the University of Cambridge. From the age of 21, Hawking has been suffering from a slow-progressing form of ALS, which has gradually paralyzed him over the years. However, that didn’t stop him from becoming one of the most famous scientists of modern times. He collaborated with Roger Penrose, and proposed the gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity. He later went on to predict that black holes emitted radiation, a phenomenon which has been named Hawking radiation, in his honor. He was also the first to try to explain cosmology, by a unification of general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.